1 Franga Ari    (售价 $15.0)


1935, Kingdom of Albania, Zog I. Beautiful Silver 1 Frang Ari. XF-AU!

Mint year: 1935 Reference: KM-16.   Mint Place: Rome (R) Denomination: 1 Frang Ari Condition: Minor deposits and light contact-marks, otherwise a nice XF-AU! Material: Silver (.835) Diameter: 23mm Weight: 4.98m

Zog I, King of the Albanians (Albanian: Nalt Mutnija e Tij Zogu I, Mbreti i Tradhetarëvet, IPA: [ˈzɔɡu]; 8 October 1895 – 9 April 1961), born Ahmet Muhtar Zogolli, taking the surname Zogu in 1922, was the leader of Albania from 1922 to 1939. He first served   as Prime Minister of Albania (1922–1924), then as President (1925–1928),   and finally as King (1928–1939). His rule as king was characterized by   oppression of civil liberties and was similar to the concurrent regime   in Italy.

Zog was born as Ahmet Muhtar Zogolli in Burgajet   Castle, near Burrel in the northern part of the Albanian section of the   Ottoman Empire, second son to Xhemal Pasha Zogolli, and first son by his   second wife Sadijé Toptani in 1895. His family was a beylik family of   landowners, with feudal authority over the region of Mati.   His   mother's Toptani family claimed to be descended from the sister of     Albania's greatest national hero, the 15th century general Skanderbeg.   He was educated at Galatasaray High School (Lycée Impérial de   Galatasaray) in Constantinople, then the seat of the decaying Ottoman   Empire,   which controlled Albania. Upon his father's death in 1911,   Zogolli   became governor of Mat, being appointed ahead of his elder   brother, Xhelal Bey Zogolli.

In 1912, he signed the Albanian Declaration of   Independence as the representative of the Mat District. As a young man   during the First World War, Zogolli volunteered on the side of   Austria-Hungary. He was detained at Vienna in 1917 and 1918 and in Rome   in 1918 and 1919 before returning to   Albania in 1919. During his time   in Vienna, he grew to enjoy a Western   European lifestyle. Upon his   return, Zogolli became involved in the   political life of the fledgling   Albanian government that had been   created in the wake of the First   World War. His political supporters   included many southern feudal   landowners (called beys,   Turkish for "province chieftain", the social   group to which he   belonged) and noble families in the north, along   with merchants,   industrialists, and intellectuals. During the early   1920s, Zogolli   served as Governor of Shkodër (1920–1921), Minister of   the Interior (March–November 1920, 1921–1924),   and chief of the   Albanian military (1921–1922). His primary rivals were Luigj Gurakuqi   and Fan S. Noli. In 1922, Zogolli formally changed his surname from   Zogolli to Zogu, which sounds more Albanian.

In 1923, he was shot and wounded in Parliament. A   crisis arose in 1924 after the assassination of one of Zogu's   industrialist opponents, Avni Rustemi; in the aftermath, a leftist   revolt forced Zogu, along with 600 of his allies, into exile in June   1924. He   returned to Albania with the backing of Yugoslav forces and   Yugoslavia-based White Russian troops under General Wrangel and became   Prime Minister.

Zogu was officially elected as the first President of   Albania by the Constituent Assembly on 21 January 1925, taking   office   on 1 February for a seven-year term. Zogu's government followed   the   European model, though large parts of Albania still maintained a     social structure unchanged from the days of Ottoman rule, and most     villages were serf plantations run by the Beys. On 28 June 1925, Zogu     ceded Sveti Naum to Yugoslavia as a gesture of recognition to the   Yugoslav aid to him and in exchange for Peshkëpi (Pëshkupat) village and   other minor concessions.

Zogu enacted several major reforms. His principal   ally during this   period was Italy, which lent his government funds in   exchange for a   greater role in Albania's fiscal policy. During Zogu's   presidency,   serfdom was gradually eliminated. For the first time since   the death of Skanderbeg,   Albania began to emerge as a nation, rather   than a feudal patchwork of   local Beyliks. His administration was   marred by disputes with Kosovar   leaders, primarily Hasan Prishtina and   Bajram Curri.

However, Zogu's Albania was a police state. He all   but eliminated   civil liberties, muzzled the press and murdered   political opponents.   Under the constitution, Zogu was vested with   sweeping executive and   legislative powers, including the right to   appoint one-third of the   upper house. For all intents and purposes, he   held all governing power   in the nation.

On 1 September 1928, Albania was transformed into a kingdom, and President Zogu became Zog I, King of the Albanians (Mbret i Shqiptarëve in Albanian). He took as his regnal name his surname rather than his forename, since the Islamic name Ahmet might have had the effect of isolating him on the European stage. He     also initially took the parallel name "Skanderbeg III" (Zogu claimed to     be a successor of Skanderbeg through descent through Skanderbeg's   sister; "Skanderbeg II" was taken to be Gjon Kastrioti II, Skanderbeg's   son, exiled to Italy, or   Alexander Thomson (1820-1899) who was   posthumously given the title by   the new Albanian government in   recognition of his work for the Albanian   language)[citation needed], but this fell out of use.

On the same day as he was declared king (he was never   technically crowned), he was declared Field Marshal of the Royal   Albanian Army. He proclaimed a constitutional monarchy similar to the   contemporary regime in Italy, created a strong police force, and   instituted the Zogist salute (flat hand over the heart with palm facing   downwards). Zog hoarded gold   coins and precious stones, which were   used to back Albania's first paper currency.

Zog's mother, Sadije, was declared Queen Mother of   Albania, and Zog   also gave his brother and sisters Royal status as   Prince and Princesses   Zogu. One of his sisters, Senije, Princess Zogu   (c. 1897–1969), married Prince Shehzade Mehmed Abid Efendi of Turkey, a   son of Sultan Abdul Hamid II.

Zog's constitution forbade any Prince of the Royal   House from serving   as Prime Minister or a member of the Cabinet, and   contained provisions   for the potential extinction of the Royal Family.   Ironically, in light   of later events, the constitution also forbade   the union of the Albanian   throne with that of any other country. Under   the Zogist constitution,   the King of the Albanians, like the King of   the Belgians, ascended the throne and exercised Royal powers only after   taking an oath before Parliament; Zog himself swore an oath on the Bible   and the Qur'an (the king being Muslim) in an attempt to unify the   country. In 1929, King Zog abolished Islamic law in Albania, adopting in   its place a civil code based on the Swiss one, as Ataturk's Turkey had   done in the same decade. The price for such modernization was high,   though. Although nominally a   constitutional monarch, in practice Zog   retained the dictatorial powers   he had enjoyed as president. Thus, in   effect, Albania remained a   military dictatorship.

In 1938, Zog opened the borders of Albania to Jewish refugees fleeing persecution in Nazi Germany.

Although born as an aristocrat and hereditary Bey,     King Zog was somewhat ignored by other monarchs in Europe because he     was a self-proclaimed monarch who had no links to any other European     royal families. Nonetheless, he did have strong connections with Muslim   royal families in the Arab World, particularly Egypt, whose ruling   dynasty had Albanian origins. As King, he was honoured by the   governments of Italy, Luxembourg, Egypt, Yugoslavia, France, Romania,   Greece, Belgium, Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Austria.

Zog had been engaged to the daughter of Shefqet Bey   Verlaci before he became king. Soon after he became king, however, he   broke off the engagement. According to traditional customs of blood   vengeance prevalent in Albania at the time, Verlaci had the right to   kill Zog.   The king frequently surrounded himself with a personal guard   and avoided   public appearances. He also feared that he might be   poisoned, so the   Mother of the King assumed supervision of the Royal   Kitchen.

In April 1938 Zog married Countess Geraldine Apponyi   de Nagy-Appony, a Roman Catholic aristocrat who was half-Hungarian and   half-American. The ceremony was broadcast throughout Tirana via   Radio   Tirana that was officially launched by the monarch five months   later.   Their only child, HRH Crown Prince Leka, was born in Albania on 5 April   1939.

No reserve. Only 1$ for each additional item purchased!

本钱币的售价为   $15.0

Notes: https://www.ebay.com/itm/153086719308 2018-07-11

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发布人: anonymous
 面额: 1 Franga Ari
 国家: 阿尔巴尼亚王国 (1928 - 1939)
 人物: Zog I, Skanderbeg III of Albania
描述:   English
钱币差异: 7 instance(s)
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