1961, Uruguay (Republic). Commemorative Silver 10 Pesos Coin.
Mint Year: 1961
Denominations: 10 Pesos
Material: Silver (.900)
Obverse: Bust of “El Gaucho” right, wearing cap.
Legend: REPUBLICA ORIENTAL DEL URUGUAY . EL GAUCHO HEROE NACIONAL .
Reverse: Value (10) above denomination (PESOS) within wreath.
Legend: SESQUICENTENARIO . DE . LOS . HECHOS . HISTORICOS . DE . 1811 .
In 1811, JosÃ© Gervasio Artigas, who became Uruguay’s national hero, launched a successful revolution against the Spanish authorities, defeating them on 18 May at the Battle of Las Piedras. In 1813 the new government in Buenos Aires convened a constituent assembly where Artigas emerged as a champion of federalism, demanding political and economic autonomy for each area, and for the Banda Oriental in particular. The assembly refused to seat the delegates from the Banda Oriental however, and Buenos Aires pursued a system based on unitary centralism. As a result, Artigas broke with Buenos Aires and besieged Montevideo, taking the city in early 1815. Once the troops from Buenos Aires had withdrawn, the Banda Oriental appointed its first autonomous government. Artigas organized the Federal League under his protection, consisting of six provinces, four of which later became part of Argentina. In 1816 a force of 10,000 Portuguese troops invaded the Banda Oriental from Brazil; they took Montevideo in January 1817. After nearly four more years of struggle Portuguese Brazil annexed the Banda Oriental as a province under the name of “Cisplatina”. The Brazilian Empire became independent from Portugal in 1822. In response to the annexation, the Thirty-Three Orientals, led by Juan Antonio Lavalleja, declared independence on 25 August 1825 supported by the United Provinces of the RÃo de la Plata (present-day Argentina). This led to the 500-day-long Cisplatine War. Neither side gained the upper hand and in 1828 the Treaty of Montevideo, fostered by the United Kingdom, gave birth to Uruguay as an independent state. The nation’s first constitution was adopted on 18 July 1830.
Uruguay is a country located in the southeastern part of South America. Colonia del Sacramento, one of Uruguay’s oldest European settlements, was founded by the Portuguese in 1680. Montevideo was founded by the Spanish in the early 18th century as a military stronghold. Uruguay won its independence in 1811Ã¢â‚¬â€œ28 following a three-way struggle among Spain, Argentina and Brazil. It is a constitutional democracy, where the president fulfills the roles of both head of state and head of government.
The Uruguayan Civil War, also known as "Guerra Grande", was a series of armed conflicts that took place between the Colorado Party and the National Party in Uruguay from 1839 to 1851. The two parties received backing from foreign sources including both neighbouring countries such as the Empire of Brazil and the Argentine Confederation as well as imperial powers, primarily the British Empire and the Kingdom of France, but also a legion of Italian volunteers including Guiseppe Garibaldi. The nine-year siege of Montevideo captured the imagination of European writers such as Alexandre Dumas.
After the “Guerra Grande” there was a sharp rise in the number of immigrants, above all from Italy and Spain. The number of immigrants had risen from 48% of the population in 1860 to 68% in 1868. In the 1870s, a further 100,000 Europeans arrived, so that by 1879 about 438,000 people were living in Uruguay, a quarter of them in Montevideo. In 1857, the first bank was opened; three years later a canal system was begun, the first telegraph line was set up, and rail links were built between the capital and the countryside.
The economy saw a steep upswing after the “Guerra Grande”, above all in livestock raising and export. Between 1860 and 1868, the number of sheep rose from three to seventeen million. The reason for this increase lay above all in the improved methods of husbandry introduced by European immigrants.
Montevideo became a major economic centre of the region. Thanks to its natural harbour, it became an entrepÃƒÂ´t for goods from Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. The towns of PaysandÃƒÂº and Salto, both on the River Uruguay, also experienced similar development.