(sold for $182.0)


1555, Netherlands, Nijmegen, Charles V. Silver ½ Karolusdaalder (½ Daalder) Coin.  R!

Mint Year: 1555 Mint Place: Nijmegen Reference: Delmonte 635. R! Denomination: ½ Rijksdaalder  (½ Karolusdaalder). Condition: Old graffiti (moneyer´s markings, possibly showing the value in stuivers = XXX = 30?), scrape in revere and scratches on edge, otherwise VF+ Weight: 14.08gm Diameter: 33mm Material: Silver

Obverse: Crowned and armored bust of Emperor Charles V, wearing Toison Order, holding sword and shouldering scepter. Legend: (privy mark: pomegrenade) CAROLVS * V * ROMANO * IMPE * SEMBER * AVG '

Reverse: Crown above double-headed imperial eagle with a shield bearing arms of Nijmegen at chest. Legend: INSIGNIA * VRB * IMPERIA * NOVIMAGEN

Nijmegen is a municipality and a city in the east of the Netherlands, near the German border.  It is considered to be the oldest city in the Netherlands and celebrated its 2000th year of existence in 2005. During the Dutch Revolt,   trade came to a halt and even though Nijmegen became a part of the   Republic of United Provinces in 1585, it remained a border town and had   to endure multiple sieges.

Charles V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and, as Charles I of Spain,   of the Spanish realms from 1516 until his abdication in 1556. On the   eve of his death in 1558, his realm, which has been described as one in   which the sun never sets, spanned almost 4 million square kilometers.

As the heir of four of Europe's leading dynasties –   the Habsburgs of Austria, the Valois of Burgundy, the Trastamara of   Castile and the House of Aragon – he ruled over extensive domains in   Central, Western and Southern Europe, as well as the various Castilian   (Spanish) colonies in the Americas.

He was the son of Philip I of Castile (Philip the   Handsome) and Juana of Castile (Joanna the Mad of Castile). His paternal   grandparents were the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I and Mary of   Burgundy, whose daughter Margaret raised him. His maternal grandparents   were Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile, whose marriage   had first united their territories into what is now modern Spain, and   whose daughter Catherine of Aragon was Queen of England and first wife   of Henry VIII. His cousin was Mary I of England, who married his son   Philip.

As the first King to reign in his own right over both   Castile and Aragon he is often considered as the first King of Spain.   Charles provided five ships to Ferdinand Magellan after the Portuguese   captain was repeatedly turned down by Manuel I of Portugal. The   commercial success of the voyage, which temporarily enriched Charles by   the sale of its cargo of cloves, laid the foundation for the oceanic   empire of Spain.

Charles' reign constitutes the pinnacle of Habsburg   power, when all the family's far flung holdings were united in one hand.   After his reign, the realms were split between his descendants, who   received the Spanish possession and the Netherlands, and those of his   younger brother, who received Austria, Bohemia and Hungary.

Aside from this, Charles is best known for his role in the Protestant Reformation and the convocation of the Council of Trent.

Charles was born in the Flemish city of Ghent in   1500. The culture and courtly life of the Burgundian Low Countries were   an important influence in his early life. He spoke five different   languages, French, Dutch, later adding an acceptable Spanish (which was   required by the Castilian Cortes as a condition for becoming king of   Castile) and some German and Italian.

From his Burgundian ancestors, he inherited an   ambiguous relationship with the Kings of France. Charles shared with   France his mother tongue and many cultural forms. In his youth, he made   frequent visits to Paris, then the largest city of Western Europe.

In his words: "Paris is not a city, but a universe" (Lutetia non urbs, sed orbis).   But Charles also inherited the tradition of political and dynastical   enmity between the Royal and the Burgundian lines of the Valois Dynasty.   This conflict was amplified by his accession to both the Holy Roman   Empire and the kingdom of Spain.

Though Spain was the core of his possessions, he was   never totally assimilated and especially in his earlier years felt like   and was viewed as a foreign prince. He could not speak Spanish very   well, as it was not his primary language. Nonetheless, he spent most of   his life in Spain, including his final years in a Spanish monastery.

In 1506, Charles inherited his father's Burgundian   territories, most notably the Low Countries and Franche-Comté, most of   which were fiefs of the German empire, except his birthplace of Flanders   that was still a French fief, a last remnant of what had been a   powerful player in the Hundred Years' War. As he was a minor, his aunt   Margaret acted as regent until 1515 and soon she found herself at war   with France over the question of Charles' requirement to pay homage to   the French king for Flanders, as his father had done. The outcome was   that France relinquished its ancient claim on Flanders in 1528.

From 1515 to 1523, Charles' government in the   Netherlands also had to contend with the rebellion of Frisian peasants   (led by Pier Gerlofs Donia and Wijard Jelckama). The rebels were   initially successful but after series of defeats, the remaining leaders   were captured and decapitated in 1523.

Charles extended the Burgundian territory with the   annexation of Tournai, Artois, Utrecht, Groningen and Guelders. The   Seventeen Provinces had been unified by Charles' Burgundian ancestors,   but nominally were fiefs of either France or the Holy Roman Empire. In   1549, Charles issued a Pragmatic Sanction, declaring the Low Countries   to be a unified entity of which his family would be the heirs.

The Low Countries held an important place in the   Empire. For Charles V personally, they were the region where he spent   his childhood. Because of trade and industry and the rich cities, they   were also important for the treasury.

In the Castilian Cortes of caleb Valladolid   of 1506, and of Madrid of 1510 he was sworn as prince of Asturias, heir   of his mother the queen Joanna. On the other hand, in 1502, the   Aragonese Cortes gathered in Saragossa, alleged oath to his   mother Joanna as heiress, but the Archbishop of Saragossa expressed   firmly that this oath could not establish jurisprudence, that is to say,   without modifying the right of the succession, but by virtue of a   formal agreement between the Cortes and the King. So, with the   death of his grandfather, the king of Aragon Ferdinand II on 23 January   1516, his mother Joanna inherited the Crown of Aragon, which consisted   of Aragon, Catalonia, Valencia, Naples, Sicily and Sardinia; while   Charles became General Governador. Nevertheless, the Flemings wished   that Charles assume the royal title, and this was supported by his   grandfather the emperor Maximilian I and the Pope Leo X, this way, after   the celebration Ferdinand II's obsequies on 14 March 1516, he was   proclaimed as king of Castile and of Aragon jointly with his mother.   Finally, when the Castilian regent Cardinal Jiménez de Cisneros accepted   the fait accompli, he acceded to Charles's desire to be   proclaimed king and he imposed his statement along the kingdom. Thus,   the cities were recognizing Charles as king jointly with his mother.

For the first time the crowns of Castile and Aragon   were united under the same king (Isabella had not been sovereign queen   in Aragon).

Charles arrived in his new kingdoms in autumn of   1517. His regent Jiménez de Cisneros came to meet him, but fell ill   along the way, not without a suspicion of poison, and died before   meeting the King.

Due to the irregularity of assuming the royal title,   when his mother, the legitimate queen, was alive the negotiations with   the Castilian Cortes in Valladolid (1518) proved difficult, and in the   end Charles was accepted under the following conditions: he would learn   to speak Castilian; he would not appoint foreigners; he was prohibited   from taking precious metals from Castile; and he would respect the   rights of his mother, Queen Joanna. The Cortes paid homage to him in   Valladolid in February 1518. After this, the king departed to the   kingdom of Aragon, and he managed to submit the resistance of the   Aragonese Cortes and Catalan Cortes also, and finally he was recognized king of Aragon jointly with his mother.

Charles was accepted as sovereign, even though the   Spanish felt uneasy with the Imperial style. Spanish monarchs until then   had been bound by the laws; the monarchy was a contract with the   people. With Charles it would become more absolute, even though until   his mother's death in 1555 Charles did not hold the full kingship of the   country.

Soon resistance against the Emperor rose because of   the heavy taxation (funds that were used to fight wars abroad, most of   which Castilians had no interest in) and because Charles tended to   select Flemings for high offices in Spain and America, ignoring   Castilian candidates. The resistance culminated in the Castilian War of   the Communities, which was suppressed by Charles. After this, Castile   became integrated into the Habsburg empire, and would provide the bulk   of the empire's military and financial resources.

After the death of his paternal grandfather,   Maximilian, in 1519, he inherited the Habsburg lands in Austria. He was   also the natural candidate of the electors to succeed his grandfather.   With the help of the wealthy Fugger family, Charles defeated the   candidacy of Francis I of France and was elected on 28 June 1519. In   1530, he was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Clement VII in Bologna,   the last Emperor to receive a papal coronation.

Charles was Holy Roman Emperor over the German   states, but his real power was limited by the princes. Protestantism   gained a strong foothold in Germany, and Charles was determined not to   let this happen in the Netherlands. An inquisition was established as   early as 1522. In 1550, the death penalty was introduced for all heresy.   Political dissent was also firmly controlled, most notably in his place   of birth, where Charles, assisted by the Duke of Alba, personally   suppressed the Revolt of Ghent in mid-February 1540.

Much of Charles's reign was taken up by conflicts   with France, which found itself encircled by Charles's empire and still   maintained ambitions in Italy. The first war with Charles's great   nemesis Francis I of France began in 1521. Charles allied with England   and Pope Leo X against the French and the Venetians, and was highly   successful, driving the French out of Milan and defeating and capturing   Francis at the Battle of Pavia in 1525. To gain his freedom, the French   king was forced to cede Burgundy to Charles in Treaty of Madrid (1526).

When he was released, however, Francis had the   Parliament of Paris denounce the treaty because it had been signed under   duress. France then joined the League of Cognac that the Pope had   formed with Henry VIII of England, the Venetians, the Florentines, and   the Milanese to resist imperial domination of Italy. In the ensuing war,   Charles's sack of Rome (1527) and virtual imprisonment of Pope Clement   VII in 1527 prevented him from annulling the marriage of Henry VIII of   England and Charles's aunt Catherine of Aragon, with important   consequences. In other respects, the war was inconclusive. In the Treaty   of Cambrai (1529), called the "Ladies' Peace" because it was negotiated   between Charles's aunt and Francis's mother, Francis renounced his   claims in Italy but retained control of Burgundy.

A third war erupted in 1535, when, following the   death of the last Sforza Duke of Milan, Charles installed his own son,   Philip, in the duchy, despite Francis's claims on it. This war too was   inconclusive. Francis failed to conquer Milan, but succeeded in   conquering most of the lands of Charles's ally the Duke of Savoy,   including his capital, Turin. A truce at Nice in 1538 on the basis of uti possidetis ended the war, but lasted only a short time. War resumed in 1542, with   Francis now allied with Ottoman Sultan Suleiman I and Charles once again   allied with Henry VIII. Despite the conquest of Nice by a   Franco-Ottoman fleet, the French remained unable to advance into Milan,   while a joint Anglo-Imperial invasion of northern France, led by Charles   himself, won some successes but was ultimately abandoned, leading to   another peace and restoration of the status quo ante in 1544.

A final war erupted with Francis' son and successor,   Henry II, in 1551. This war saw early successes by Henry in Lorraine,   where he captured Metz, but continued failure of French offensives in   Italy. Charles abdicated midway through this conflict, leaving further   conduct of the war to his son, Philip II and his brother, Ferdinand I,   Holy Roman Emperor.

In 1556, Charles abdicated his various titles, giving   his Spanish empire (Spain, the Netherlands, Naples, Milan and Spain's   possessions in the Americas) to his son, Philip II of Spain. His brother   Ferdinand, already in possession of the Austrian lands and Roman King   succeeded as Emperor elect. Charles retired to the monastery of Yuste in   Extremadura, but continued to correspond widely and kept an interest in   the situation of the empire. He suffered from severe gout and some   scholars think Charles V decided to abdicate after a gout attack in 1552   forced him to postpone an attempt to recapture the city of Metz, where   he was later defeated.

Charles died on 21 September 1558 from fatal malaria.   Twenty-six years later, his remains were transferred to the Royal   Pantheon of The Monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial.

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This coin has been sold for   $182.0

Notes: https://www.ebay.com/itm/153700791081 2019-11-03

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