1 Groschen    (sold for $42.0)

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1627, Hungary/Transylvania, Gabriel Bethlehen. Silver Broad Grossus Coin. VF-  

Mint Year: 1626 Reference: KM-169. R! Condition: VF- (light corrosion!) Mint Place: Nagybanya (Transilvania) Denominations: Broad Grossus. Diameter: 25mm Weight: 2.11gm Material: Silver

Obverse: Crowned hungarian coat of arms, flanked by mint initials (N-B). Legend: GAB DG SA RO IM ET TRAN PRIN   Reverse: Madonna and child Jesus surrounded by light rays. Legend: PAR . REG . HVN . DO : SIC CO O PR DV 1627

Gabriel Bethlen was one of the most striking and original personages of his century. A zealous Calvinist who boasted he had read the Bible twenty-five times, he was not a bigot and had helped the Jesuit György Káldy to translate and print his version of the Scriptures.  He was in communication all his life with the leading contemporary  statesmen, so that his correspondence is one of the most interesting  and important of historical documents. He also composed hymns.

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Gabriel Bethlen (de Iktár) (-English, Hungarian: Bethlen Gábor, Romanian: Gabriel Bethlen, German: Gabriel Bethlen von Iktár 1580-November 15, 1629) was a prince of Transylvania (1613-1629), duke of Opole (1622-1625) and leader of an anti-Habsburg insurrection in the Habsburg Royal Hungary. His last armed intervention in 1626 was part of the Thirty Years' War. He led an active Protestant-oriented foreign policy.

Gabriel Bethlen, the most famous representative of the Iktári branch of the ancient Hungarian Bethlen family, was born at Marosillye (today Ilia in Romania) and educated at Szárhegy (today Lazarea in Romania) at the castle of his uncle András Lázár. Thence he was sent to the court of the Transylvanian Prince Sigismund Báthory, whom he accompanied on his famous Wallachian campaign. Subsequently he assisted István Bocskay to become Prince of Transylvania in 1605 and remained his chief counsellor. Bethlen also supported Bocskay's successor Gabriel Báthory (1608-1613), but the prince became jealous of Bethlen's superior  abilities and Bethlen was obliged to take refuge with the Turks of the Ottoman Empire.

In 1613, Bethlen led a large army against Prince Báthory, but in the  same year Báthory was murdered by two of his officers. Bethlen was  placed on the throne by the Ottomans in opposition to the wishes of the  Austrian Habsburg emperor, who preferred a prince who would incline more toward Vienna than toward Turkish Constantinople. On October 13, 1613, the Transylvanian Diet at Kolozsvár (today Cluj-Napoca), confirmed the choice of the Turkish sultan. In 1615, Bethlen was also officially recognized by the Emperor Matthias as the Prince of Transylvania; Bethlen promised in secret that he would help the Habsburgs against the Ottomans.

While avoiding the cruelties and excesses of many of his  predecessors, Bethlen established a singular variant of patriarchal but  sufficiently enlightened absolutism.  He developed mines and industry and nationalised many branches of  Transylvania's foreign trade. His agents bought up many products at  fixed prices and sold them abroad at a profit, almost doubling his  revenues. He built himself a grand new palace in his capital, Gyulafehérvár (today Alba Iulia), kept a sumptuous court, composed hymns, and  patronised the arts and learning, especially in connection with his own Calvinist faith. He founded an academy to which he invited any pastor and teacher  from Royal Hungary; sent students abroad to the Protestant universities  of England, the Low Countries, and the Protestant principalities of Germany;,  conferred hereditary nobility on all Protestant pastors; and forbade  landlords to prevent their serfs from having their children schooled.

Other parts of his revenue he devoted toward keeping an efficient  standing army of mercenaries, with whose help he conducted an ambitious  foreign policy. Keeping peace with the Ottoman Porte, he struck out to the north and west.

While Emperor Ferdinand was occupied with the Bohemian rebellion of 1618, Bethlen led his armies into Royal Hungary in August 1619 and occupied the town of Kassa (Košice) in September, where his Protestant supporters declared him  "head" of Hungary and protector of the Protestants. He soon won over  the entirety of present-day Slovakia, even securing the capital of  Royal Hungary, Pozsony (Bratislava), in October, where the palatine even handed over the Crown of St Stephen to Bethlen. Bethlen's troops joined with the troops of the Czech and Moravian estates (led by Count Jindrich Matyas Thurn),  but they failed to conquer Vienna in November – Bethlen was forced to  leave Austria after being attacked by George Druget and Polish  mercenaries (lisowczycy)  in Upper Hungary. Although he had conquered most of Royal Hungary,  Bethlen was not averse to a peace, nor to a preliminary suspension of  hostilities, and negotiations were opened at the conquered towns of Pozsony (Bratislava), Kassa (Košice) and Besztercebánya (Banská Bystrica). Initially, they led to nothing because Bethlen  insisted on including the Czechs in the peace, but finally a truce was  concluded in January 1620 under which Bethlen received 13 counties in  the east of Royal Hungary. On 20 August 1620 the estates elected him King of Hungary at the Diet in Besztercebánya with the consent of the Ottomans, but  Bethlen refused to accept the crown because he wanted to reconcile with  the Habsburgs and reunite Hungary. However, the war with the Habsburgs  resumed in Royal Hungary and Lower Austria in September.

The defeat of the Czech rebels by Ferdinand II's troops at the Battle of White Mountain on 8 November 1620 (to which Bethlen had sent 3,000 delayed troops which however came too  late) gave a new turn to Bethlen's insurrection against the Habsburgs.  Ferdinand II took a fearful revenge upon the Protestant nobility in  Bohemia and reconquered Royal Hungary (Pozsony reconquered in May 1621,  central part of the country with the mining towns in June 1621).  Because the Protestant nobles had not received the confiscated property  of the Catholics on Bethlen's territory and thus rescinded their  support for Bethlen, and because Bethlen was not directly supported by  the Ottomans, Bethlen started peace negotiations. As a result, the Treaty of Nikolsburg was concluded on December 31, 1621,  under which Bethlen renounced the royal title on condition that  Ferdinand confirmed the 1606 Peace of Vienna (which had granted full  liberty of worship to the Hungarian Protestants)  and engaged to summon a general diet within six months). The treaty  granted full liberty of worship to the Protestants of Hungarian  Transylvania and agreed on the summoning of a general diet within six  months. In addition, Bethlen secured the (purely formal) title of  "Imperial Prince" (of Hungarian Transylvania), seven counties around  the Upper Tisza River (in present-day Slovakia, Ukraine, Hungary and Romania), the fortresses of Tokaj, Munkács, and Ecsed, and a duchy in Silesia.

Subsequently Bethlen twice (1623-1624 and 1626) launched further  campaigns against Ferdinand to the territory of Hungarian Highlands  present-day Slovakia, this time as a direct ally of the anti-Habsburg  Protestant powers. The first war was concluded by the 1624 Peace of  Vienna, the second by the 1626 Peace of Pozsony-  both confirmed the 1621 Peace of Nikolsburg. After the second of these  campaigns, Bethlen attempted a rapprochement with the court of Vienna  on the basis of an alliance against the Turks and his own marriage with  an archduchess of Austria, but Ferdinand rejected his overtures.  Bethlen was obliged to renounce his anti-Turkish projects, which had  always remained a goal of his. Accordingly, on his return from Vienna  he wedded Catherine, the daughter of the elector of Brandenburg, and still more closely allied himself with the Protestant powers, including his brother-in-law Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, who, he hoped, would aid him in obtaining the Polish crown. Bethlen died on November 15, 1629 before he could accomplish any of his great designs to Unite  Transylvania and Hungary, having previously secured the election of his  wife Catherine as princess. His first wife, Zsuzsanna Károlyi, died in  1622.

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This coin has been sold for   $42.0

Notes: https://www.ebay.com/itm/372267900144 2018-04-10

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Posted by: anonymous
2018-04-04
Coin Group
 Denomination: 1 Groschen
 Metal: Silver
 State: Principality of Transylvania (1571-1711)
 Person: Gabriel Bethlen, prince of Transylv ...
 Catalog reference:
  KM-169
 
Description:   English
Coin variations: 5 instance(s)
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