Description: CoinWorldTV 1768, Hesse-Cassel, Frederick II. Silver 1/12 Thaler (2 Groschen) Coin. VF-XF! Mint Year: 1768 Condition: VF-XF! Denomination: 1/12 Thaler (2 Groschen) References: KM-474.2 ($45 in VF / $90 in XF!). Diameter: 23mm Material: Silver Weight: 3.16gm Obverse: Crowned rampart lion left, holding shield with initials of Frederick II of Hesse-Cassel. Legend: 160 STUCK EINE MARK FEIN Reverse: Value (*XII*) above denomination (REINEN REICHS THAL.), date (1768.) and initials (F.U.). Legend: FURSTL : HESS : LANDM. / * IUSTIRT * The Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel (German: Landgrafschaft Hessen-Kassel), known as Hesse-Cassel during its existence, was a state in the Holy Roman Empire directly subject to the Emperor that came into existence when the Landgraviate of Hesse was divided in 1567 upon the death of Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse. His eldest son William IV inherited the northern half and the capital of Kassel. The other sons received the Landgraviate of Hesse-Marburg, the Landgraviate of Hesse-Rheinfels and the Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt. The Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel was elevated to the Electorate of Hesse and Landgrave William IX was elevated to Imperial Elector during the reorganization of the Empire in 1803, in the midst of the Napoleonic wars, and later occupied by French troops and became part of the Kingdom of Westphalia, which was a French satellite state. Frederick II (German: Landgraf Friedrich II von Hessen-Kassel) (14 August 1720 – 31 October 1785) was Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel) from 1760 to 1785. He ruled as an enlightened despot, and raised money by renting soldiers (called "Hessians") to Great Britain to help fight the American Revolutionary War. He combined Enlightenment ideas with Christian values, cameralist plans for central control of the economy, and a militaristic approach toward international diplomacy. Frederick was born at Kassel in Hesse, the son of William VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel and his wife Dorothea Wilhelmine of Saxe-Zeitz. His paternal grandfather was Charles I, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, and his paternal uncle was Frederick I of Sweden. His education was initially entrusted to Colonel August Moritz von Donop and then from 1726 to 1733 to the Swiss theologian and philosopher, Jean-Pierre de Crousaz. After being formally separated from his wife in 1755, Friedrich entered active service in the Prussian military. In 1760, he succeeded his father as Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel. Despite Frederick's Catholicism, the principality remained Calvinist, and Frederick's children were raised as Protestants in Denmark. During the 17th and 18th centuries, it was a fairly widespread practice for smaller principalities to rent out troops to other princes. However, the practise was carried to excess in Hesse-Kassel, which maintained 7% of its entire population under arms throughout the eighteenth century.Frederick hired out so many troops to his nephew, King George III of Great Britain, for use in the American War of Independence, that "Hessian" has become an American term for all German soldiers deployed by the British in the War. Frederick used the revenue to finance his patronage of the arts and his opulent lifestyle. The architect Simon Louis du Ry transformed for Frederick II. the town of Kassel into a modern capital. Landgrave Frederick II died in 1785 at Castle Weißenstein, Kassel. He was succeeded by his eldest surviving son, William. Only 1$ shipping for each additional item purchased!
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