1780, Hungary, Maria Theresa. Beautiful Silver "Madonna" Thaler Coin. Kremnitz!
Mint Year: 1780
Mint Place: Kremnitz (Hungary)
Reference: Davenport 1133A, KM-386.2. R!
Condition: Minor weight adjusting marks in obverse and light deposits, planchet imperfection spot around the letter "T" at (1 o’clock) in reverse, otherwise XF!
Obverse: Crown of St. Stephen, supported by flying angels above shield of the Kingdom of Hungary, ornated with of the Maria Theresa order (MT) chain.
Legend: M. THER. D. G. R. IMP. HU. BO. R. A. A. D. B. C. T.
Reverse: The Virgin with child and staff, standing on crescent, surrounded by light-rays. Crescent and mint initial (B) below her feet.
Legend: S. MARIA MATER DEI PATRONA HUNG. 1780 .X
Exergue: S.K. (B) P.D.
The Holy Crown of Hungary (Magyar Szent Korona, Latin: Sacra Corona), also known as the Crown of Saint Stephen, is the only crown known today with "holy" attribute.
The Hungarian coronation insignia consists of the Holy Crown, the sceptre, the orb, and the mantle. Since the twelfth century kings have been crowned with the still extant crown. The orb has the coat-of-arms of the Hungarian king KÃ¡roly RÃ³bert of Anjou (1310-1342); the other insignia can be linked to Saint Stephen.
The Crown was bound to the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen, (sometimes the Sacra Corona meant the Land, the Carpathian Basin, but it also meant the coronation body, too). (see more: Doctrine of the Holy Crown) No king of Hungary was regarded as having been truly legitimate without being crowned with it. In the history of Hungary, more than fifty kings were crowned with it (the two kings who were not so crowned were Sigismund Johann II and Joseph II).
Maria Theresa (German: Maria Theresia, see also other languages; May 13, 1717 â€“ November 29, 1780) was a reigning Archduchess of Austria, a Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, and a Holy Roman Empress.
Maria Theresa was the oldest daughter of Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-WolfenbÃ¼ttel and Emperor Charles VI, who promulgated the Pragmatic Sanction to allow her to succeed to the Habsburg monarchy. Opposition to her acceding to the throne led to the War of the Austrian Succession in 1740. After Emperor Charles VII, who claimed the throne, died in 1745, Maria Theresa obtained the imperial crown for her husband, Francis I. Though she was technically empress consort, Maria Theresa was the de facto ruler of the nation, and she began styling herself Holy Roman Empress in 1745. Maria Theresa had in fact already begun her rule in 1740 during the Austrian War of Succession.
Maria Theresa helped initiate financial and educational reforms, promoted commerce and the development of agriculture, and reorganized the army, all of which strengthened Austria’s resources. Continued conflict with the Kingdom of Prussia led to the Seven Years' War and later to the War of the Bavarian Succession. She became dowager empress after the death of Francis and ascession of her son Joseph as emperor in 1765. Maria Theresa criticized many of Joseph’s actions but agreed to the First Partition of Poland (1772). A key figure in the power politics of 18th century Europe, Maria Theresa brought unity to the Habsburg Monarchy and was considered one of its most capable rulers. Her 16 children also included Marie Antoinette, queen consort of France, and Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor.