Reference: Album 496.
Mint Period: 1147-1269 AD
Denomination: Gold ½ D!nar.
Culture: Almohad Empire (Muwahhid)
Diameter: 15mm x 15mm
The Almohad Caliphate (Berber: Imweḥḥden, from Arabic الموحدون al-Muwaḥḥidun, “the monotheists” or “the unifiers”) was a Moroccan Berber Muslim movement founded in the 12th century.
The Almohad movement was started by Ibn Tumart among the Masmuda tribes of southern Morocco. The Almohads first established a Berber state in Tinmel in the Atlas Mountains in roughly 1120. They succeeded in overthrowing the ruling Almoravids in governing Morocco by 1147, when Abd al-Mu’min al-Gumi (r. 1130–1163) conquered Marrakech and declared himself Caliph. They then extended their power over all of the Maghreb by 1159. Al-Andalus followed the fate of North Africa and all Islamic Iberia was under Almohad rule by 1172.
The Almohad dominance of Iberia continued until 1212, when Muhammad III, “al-Nasir” (1199–1214) was defeated at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in the Sierra Morena by an alliance of the Christian princes of Castile, Aragon, Navarre, and Portugal. Nearly all of the Moorish dominions in Iberia were lost soon after, with the great Moorish cities of Cordova and Seville falling to the Christians in 1236 and 1248 respectively.
The Almohads continued to rule in Africa until the piecemeal loss of territory through the revolt of tribes and districts enabled the rise of their most effective enemies, the Marinids in 1215. The last representative of the line, Idris al-Wathiq, was reduced to the possession of Marrakesh, where he was murdered by a slave in 1269; the Marinids seized Marrakesh, ending the Almohad domination of the Western Maghreb.